[170], Regarding the IAEA report, several news reports suggested that Iran had failed to properly report the amount of low-enriched uranium it possessed because Iranian estimates did not match the IAEA inspector's findings, and that Iran now had enough uranium to make a nuclear bomb. We are not just prepared to do it for the exercise. Iran later set up a bilateral cooperation on fuel cycle related issues with China, but China also agreed to drop most outstanding nuclear commerce with Iran, including the construction of the UF6 plant, due to US pressure. The exchange of technical information with Iran was personally approved by the SVR director Trubnikov. President Ahmadinejad made the announcement in a televised address from the northeastern city of Mashhad, where he said "I am officially announcing that Iran joined the group of those countries which have nuclear technology." At Fordow, all 2,784 IR-1 centrifuges (16 cascades of 174 each) have been installed, though only 4 cascades are operating and another 4 are fully equipped, vacuum-tested, and ready to begin operating. "[177] He asserted the report was written in a way which clearly causes misunderstanding in public opinion. [424] Dr. James Acton, an associate in the Nonproliferation Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, has said the 2010 NPT Review Conference could recognize that non-compliance with safeguards agreements would violate article III of the NPT. The Iran-Pakistan pipeline emerged from a plan dating as far back as 1994 and once included India. [191] IAEA Director Yukiya Amano said evidence gathered by the agency "indicates that Iran has carried out activities relevant to the development of a nuclear explosive device. If you would like to join the project, simply add your name to the list of participants. He asserted "the world now faces a grave threat from the radical regime in Iran. Each one has multiple random or themed episodes. [66] Currently, thirteen states possess operational enrichment or reprocessing facilities,[67] and several others have expressed an interest in developing indigenous enrichment programs. The IHT report went on to say that "ElBaradei said he was worried about the growing rhetoric from the U.S., which he noted focused on Iran's alleged intentions to build a nuclear weapon rather than evidence the country was actively doing so. Alterations to the roofs of the chamber building and the other large building. Nuclear bombs belong to the 20th century. The report also noted that other elements of Iran's nuclear program continued to be subject to IAEA monitoring and safeguards as well, including the construction of the heavy water facility in Arak, the construction and use of hot cells associated with the Tehran Research Reactor, the uranium conversion efforts, and the Russian nuclear fuel delivered for the Bushehr reactor. After India pulled out of the plans for the original pipeline project in 2008, known as the Iran-Pakistan-India (IPI) or Peace Pipeline, Iran and Pakistan remained in partnership and signed a deal in 2009 [3] The pipeline's construction was planned to begin in 2012 and be completed by 2014. "Russia is providing the fuel, and taking the fuel back out," White House spokesman Robert Gibbs said in August. [367][368][369] President Obama called the agreement an "important first step. American support for Ba'athist Iraq during the Iran–Iraq War, in which it fought against post-revolutionary Iran, included several billion dollars' worth of economic aid, the sale of dual-use technology, non-U.S. origin weaponry, military intelligence, and special operations training. Reinstatement of some of the chamber building's features, for example wall panels and exhaust piping. The continuing controversy over Iran's nuclear program revolves in part around allegations of nuclear studies by Iran with possible military applications until 2003, when, according to the 2007 National Intelligence Estimate, the program was ended. [33][34] The United States cut off the supply of highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel for the Tehran Nuclear Research Center, which forced the reactor to shut down for a number of years. Halted Nuclear Bid By Iran; China, Argentina Agreed to Cancel Technology Transfers", "Iran's Nuclear Program. For example, its efforts at mining and converting uranium were announced on national radio,[245][246] and Iran also says that in consultation with the Agency and member states throughout the 1990s it underlined its plans to acquire, for exclusively peaceful purposes, fuel enrichment technology. [39] Later that year, Minority Whip of the United States Senate Alan Cranston asserted that the Islamic Republic of Iran was seven years away from being able to build its own nuclear weapon. It noted the IAEA chief Mohammed El-Baradei cannot confirm that Iran's nuclear program is exclusively geared toward peaceful uses, and expressed "serious concern" that Iran's stonewalling of an IAEA probe means "the possibility of military dimensions to Iran's nuclear program" cannot be excluded. "And at that point, the steps that the foreign ministers have agreed upon previously ... we would begin to talk about how to implement those steps." [280] Investigative reporter Seymour Hersh reported that, according to military officials, the Bush administration had plans for the use of nuclear weapons against "underground Iranian nuclear facilities". [128], Qolam Ali Hadad-adel, speaker of Iran's parliament, said on 30 August 2006, that Iran had the right to "peaceful application of nuclear technology and all other officials agree with this decision," according to the semi-official Iranian Students News Agency. [189], In November 2011 the IAEA released a report[190] stating inspectors had found credible evidence that Iran had been conducting experiments aimed at designing a nuclear bomb until 2003, and that research may have continued on a smaller scale after that time. Robert Malley was named as a special envoy for Iran by President Joe Biden. The French government subsidiary company Cogéma and the Iranian Government established the Sofidif (Société franco–iranienne pour l'enrichissement de l'uranium par diffusion gazeuse) enterprise with 60 and 40 per cent shares, respectively. [182], In September 2009, IAEA Director General Mohamed El Baradei that Iran had broken the law by not disclosing its second uranium enrichment site near Qom sooner. When he first came to earth, the Iron Giant had a bump on his head that was holding back info. [348][349] France's Prime Minister called the agreement a "positive step" toward resolving the Iran nuclear program dispute, if Iran were to cease uranium enrichment altogether. [425] Director of the Australian Nonproliferation and Safeguards Organization and then Chairman of IAEA Standing Advisory Group on Safeguards Implementation[426] John Carlson wrote in considering the case of Iran that "formally IAEA Board of Governors (BOG) decisions concern compliance with safeguards agreements, rather than the NPT as such, but in practical terms non-compliance with a safeguards agreement constitutes non-compliance with the NPT."[427]. [71] Iran's offer to open its uranium enrichment program to foreign private and public participation mirrors suggestions of an IAEA expert committee which was formed to investigate the methods to reduce the risk that sensitive fuel cycle activities could contribute to national nuclear weapons capabilities. Nevertheless, the report reiterated that the IAEA would not be able to verify the exclusively peaceful nature of Iran's nuclear program unless Iran adopted "transparency measures" which exceeded its safeguards agreement with the IAEA, since the IAEA does not verify the absence of undeclared nuclear activities in any country unless the Additional Protocol is in force. However, the report added that the Agency remained unable to verify certain aspects relevant to the scope and nature of Iran's nuclear program. Iran portal This is a maintenance category , used for maintenance of the Wikipedia project . [235] A poll in September 2010 by the International Peace Institute found that 71 per cent of Iranians favored the development of nuclear weapons, a drastic hike over the previous polls by the same agency. They sent a separate team to Muscat to negotiate a nuclear deal through a back channel with the White House. [202] In March 2012, Iran said it would allow another inspection at Parchin "when an agreement is made on a modality plan. Note: The list display can now be customized by each user. "[234] Though Iranians are not Arab, Arab publics in six countries also believe that Iran has the right to its nuclear program and should not be pressured to stop that program. [184], In February 2010, the IAEA issued a report scolding Iran for failing to explain purchases of sensitive technology as well as secret tests of high-precision detonators and modified designs of missile cones to accommodate larger payloads. [220], On 16 November, the IAEA released a report showing continued expansion in Iranian uranium enrichment capabilities. The report said that Iran has more than doubled the number of centrifuges at the underground facility at Fordow, from 1,064 centrifuges in May to 2,140 centrifuges in August, though the number of operating centrifuges had not increased. Citing evidence from satellite imagery that "Iran constructed a large explosives containment vessel in which to conduct hydrodynamic experiments". This includes the installation of 2,255 centrifuges since the previous IAEA report in November. This project covers the creation, expansion and curation of articles related to Iran, its cantons, geography, history, economy, politics, society, people, culture and spirit. Iran - Iran - Relief: A series of massive, heavily eroded mountain ranges surrounds Iran’s high interior basin. The Agency was able to continue to verify the non-diversion of declared nuclear material in Iran. After the IAEA Board of Governors reported Iran's noncompliance with its safeguards agreement to the United Nations Security Council, the Council demanded that Iran suspend its enrichment programs. On 11 April 2006, Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad announced that Iran had successfully enriched uranium. [281] When specifically questioned about the potential use of nuclear weapons against Iran, President Bush claimed that "All options were on the table". Les relations entre l'Iran et le Hamas consistent en une aide militaire, financière et politique au Hamas, qui est une organisation considérée comme terroriste par de nombreux États et vouée à la destruction d'Israël par le djihad.Le Hezbollah et le Jihad islamique palestinien partagent la même idéologie et sont considérés comme des « proxy » de l'Iran qui a le même objectif. Welcome to WikiProject Iran – a WikiProject set up to cooperate on all articles related to Iran and Iranians.The project covers the present and past of the Iranian cultural continent (Greater Iran or Greater Persia). [196] The IAEA later assessed that Iran has been conducting experiments to develop nuclear weapons capability. The intelligence would also boost fears by the IAEA that Iran has advanced its weapons research on multiple fronts, as computer modeling is usually accompanied by physical tests of the components which would enter a nuclear weapon. If we had a problem like that we would have to report to the [35-nation IAEA governing] board ... That has not happened because this alleged event did not take place. [158] A senior European diplomat warned "I can fabricate that data," and argued that the documents look "beautiful, but is open to doubt. In June 2009, in the immediate wake of the disputed Iranian presidential election, Iran initially agreed to a deal to relinquish its stockpile of low-enriched uranium in return for fuel for a medical research reactor, but then backed out of the deal. The intelligence reportedly indicates that Iran had advanced work on computer modeling of the performance of a nuclear warhead, work David Albright of ISIS said was "critical to the development of a nuclear weapon." [303] The senior officers of all of the major American intelligence agencies stated that there was no conclusive evidence that Iran has made any attempt to produce nuclear weapons since 2003. The IHT quoted ElBaradei as saying "We have information that there has been maybe some studies about possible weaponization. [61] After the IAEA Board of Governors reported Iran's noncompliance with its safeguards agreement to the UN Security Council, the Council demanded that Iran suspend its nuclear enrichment activities[62] while Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad has argued that the sanctions are "illegal," imposed by "arrogant powers," and that Iran has decided to pursue the monitoring of its self-described peaceful nuclear program through "its appropriate legal path," the International Atomic Energy Agency. According to the report, the IAEA has been able to continue to verify the non-diversion of declared nuclear material in Iran, and Iran has provided the Agency with access to declared nuclear material and accountancy reports, as required by its safeguards agreement. [218] The resolution, which passed by a vote of 31–1 with 3 abstentions, also expressed "serious concerns" about Iran's nuclear program while desiring a peaceful resolution. [353] Turkey and Brazil criticized the sanctions proposal. Download Wikipedia for Android or iOS Save your favorite articles to read offline, sync your reading lists across devices and customize your reading experience with the official Wikipedia app. Iran | Country Project Wiki | Fandom. During on-site inspections of the IR-40 design, IAEA inspectors observed that the installation of cooling and moderator circuit piping was continuing. The Institute for Science and International Security (ISIS) said that the purpose of the pink tarpaulin could be to hide further "clean-up work" from satellites. Iran was obligated to inform the IAEA of its importation of uranium from China and subsequent use of that material in uranium conversion and enrichment activities. [153] A senior IAEA official denied the reports of internal disagreements and accused Western powers of using the same "hype" tactics employed against Iraq before the 2003 US-led invasion to justify imposing further sanctions on Iran over its nuclear program. The first operations were during the 1960s with support of Iran's … The US shift was reportedly made for the pragmatic reason that unconditional demands for zero enrichment would make it impossible to reach a negotiated deal. [113] In September 2005, IAEA Director General Mohammad ElBaradei reported that "most" highly enriched uranium traces found in Iran by agency inspectors came from imported centrifuge components, validating Iran's claim that the traces were due to contamination. We did not use chemical weapons against Iraq. [400] Specifically regarding the "Alleged Studies", the Modalities agreement asserted that while Iran considers the documents to be fabricated, Iran would nevertheless address the allegations "upon receiving all related documents" as a goodwill gesture. [45] Some have linked attacks such as the 1992 attack on Israeli embassy in Buenos Aires and the AMIA bombing as part of an Iranian campaign to pressure Argentina into honoring the agreements. 86, Autumn 2007, Rethinking Security Interests for a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in the Middle East, Rebecca Johnson", The first-ever English-language website about Iran's nuclear energy program, Annotated bibliography for the Iranian nuclear weapons program from the Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues, South Pars/North Dome Gas-Condensate field, National Iranian Oil Refining and Distribution Company, DESA - Iran Heavy Diesel Manufacturing Company, Nationalization of the Iranian oil industry, Treaty of Amity, Economic Relations and Consular Rights, Jimmy Carter's engagement with Ruhollah Khomeini, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's letter to George W. Bush, Prisoner exchanges between Iran and United States, U.S. raid on the Iranian Liaison Office in Erbil, 2009–11 detention of American hikers by Iran, Contents of the United States diplomatic cables leak (Iran), Alleged Violations of the 1955 Treaty of Amity (Iran v. United States), Arab states–Israeli alliance against Iran, International Maritime Security Construct, 2019 Iranian shoot-down of American drone, December 2019 United States airstrikes in Iraq and Syria, Attack on the United States embassy in Baghdad, United States threat for destruction of Iranian cultural sites, 2020 Iranian attack on U.S. forces in Iraq, February 2021 United States airstrike in Syria, Iran, North Korea, Syria Nonproliferation Act, Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act, Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act, Iran Freedom and Counter-Proliferation Act, United States Diplomatic and Consular Staff in Tehran. Iran agreed to allow IAEA inspections. [92] According to arrangements in force at the time for implementation of Iran's safeguards agreement with the IAEA,[93] Iran was not required to allow IAEA inspections of a new nuclear facility until six months before nuclear material is introduced into that facility. [269][270] In an interview on the sidelines of the IAEA General Conference. [237][238][239][240] Meir Javedanfar, an Iranian-born commentator with the Middle East Economic and Political Analysis Company, stated that while Iranians may want nuclear energy, they don't want it at the price the government is willing to pay. [260], On 9 April 2007, Iran announced that it has begun enriching uranium with 3 000 centrifuges, presumably at Natanz enrichment site. Energy ‘Major Part of Equipment for Iran Tube System Produced Domestically’ Transportation. Healthcare. "[286] In his first press interview as president, Obama told Al Arabiya that "if countries like Iran are willing to unclench their fist, they will find an extended hand from us. Iran is a US embargoed nation and may not be affiliated with the Fedora Project on our wiki, nor may it receive media from the Project. [13] The Russian engineering contractor Atomenergoprom said the Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant would reach full capacity by the end of 2012. The three members who voted against referral were Venezuela, Syria and Cuba. Regarding this report, IAEA director ElBaradei specifically stated: [W]e have made quite good progress in clarifying the outstanding issues that had to do with Iran's past nuclear activities, with the exception of one issue, and that is the alleged weaponization studies that supposedly Iran has conducted in the past. The Institute was founded in January 2008. [242] Iran began its nuclear research as early as 1975, when France cooperated with Iran to set up the Esfahan Nuclear Technology Center (ENTC) to provide training for personnel to develop certain nuclear fuel cycle capabilities. [72] Some non-governmental US experts have endorsed this approach. [264], On 17 September 2012, speaking at the IAEA General Conference, Iranian nuclear chief Fereydoun Abbasi attacked the IAEA, saying that "terrorists and saboteurs" had possibly infiltrated the IAEA in order to derail Iran's nuclear program. The Kilo class is the NATO reporting name for a naval diesel-electric submarine that is made in Russia. An International Expert Group Examines Options", "A Solution for the US–Iran Nuclear Standoff", "Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement of the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya", "Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement of the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya – Resolution adopted by the Board on 10 March 2004", "Statement by the President of the Security Council", Joint Statement of the Fourth Round of the Six-Party Talks, "South Korea's nuclear surprise: as more and more countries adopt the IAEA's Additional Protocol, all kinds of nuclear secrets will come spilling out. The Modalities Agreement specifically said that aside from the issues identified in the document, there were "no other remaining issues and ambiguities regarding Iran's past nuclear program and activities.". Those changes include: Iran said that the IR-40 heavy water-moderated research reactor at Arak was expected begin to operate in the first quarter of 2014. "[287], In March 2009 US National Intelligence Director Dennis C. Blair and Defense Intelligence Agency Director Lieutenant General Michael D. Maples told a United States Senate Committee on Armed Services hearing that Iran has only low-enriched uranium, which there were no indications it was refining. If the answers are not satisfactory, we are making new questions until we are satisfied with the answers and we can conclude technically that the matter is resolved—it is for us to judge when we think we have enough information. However, questions about the authenticity of the documents persist, with claims that the documents were obtained either from Israel or the People's Mujahedin of Iran, an Iranian dissident group based on Islamic and Socialist ideology officially considered to be a terrorist organization by the United States, and that investigations into the alleged studies are intended to reveal intelligence about Iran's conventional weapons programs. February 26, 2020: The Joint Commission of the JCPOA (the E3, EU, Russia, China, and Iran) meets in Vienna to discuss Iranian non-compliance with the nuclear deal and the status of sanctions relief. "[181], In July 2009, Yukiya Amano, the incoming head of the IAEA said: "I don't see any evidence in IAEA official documents" that Iran is trying to gain the ability to develop nuclear arms. Since the IAEA requested access, "significant ground scraping and landscaping have been undertaken over an extensive area at and around the location," five buildings had been demolished, while power lines, fences, and paved roads were removed, all of which would hamper the IAEA investigation if it were granted access. #Archaeologists Relocate #Ancient Pot in #Persepolis for Renovation. [292] In 2009, US intelligence assessed that Iranian intentions were unknown. [227], In March 2015, IAEA Director General Amano reported that Iran did not provide sufficient access or information to resolve a dozen issues related to the possible military dimensions of its nuclear program, giving only very limited information on only one of those issues. [118] The UN Security Council, invoking Chapter VII of the UN Charter, then passed Resolution 1737, which obligated Iran to implement the Additional Protocol. According to the August 2007 "Modalities Agreement" between Iran and the IAEA, Iran had agreed to review and assess the "alleged studies" claims, as good faith gesture, "upon receiving all related documents. Start This article has been rated as Start-Class on the project's quality scale. You can help International Entertainment Project Wikia by expanding it. The Agency said Iran's continued refusal to implement the Additional Protocol was contrary to the request of the Board of Governors and the Security Council. Spreading, levelling and compacting of another layer of material over a large area. [250] However, despite offers of nuclear cooperation by the five permanent members of the UN Security Council and Germany, Iran has refused to suspend its enrichment program as the council has demanded. [222], The IAEA August 2012 report stated that Iran had begun to use 96 kg of its near-20 per cent enriched uranium to fabricate fuel for the Tehran Research Reactor, which makes it more difficult to further enrich that uranium to weapons grade, since it would first need to be converted back to uranium hexafluoride gas.